Automatic Fire suppression systems

 PranaFM Fire Services

fire services
Prana FM Fire-solutions

Fire Solutions.

According to the National Fire Protection Association, there were 1,602,000 fires reported in the United States in 2005. There were 3,675 civilian deaths, 17,925 civilian injuries and $9,2 billion in property damage. A fire department responded to a fire every 20 seconds and a structure fire was reported every 62 seconds.
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Prana FM-Fire-Fighter

Prana Fire Fighters.

While fire fighting may be defined as the act of extinguishing destructive fires and also part of our fire services, automatic fire suppression is more of means to control and extinguish fires before they become destructive and without human intervention.
fire services
Prana FM Fire Extinguisher

Fire Extinguishers.

Although man has fought fire for centuries, it was not until 10 February 1863 that the first fire extinguisher patent was issued to Alanson Crane of Virginia. The first fire sprinkler system was patented by H.W. Pratt in 1872, but the first practical automatic sprinkler system was invented in 1874 by Henry S. Parmalee of New Haven, CT. He installed the system in a piano factory he owned. The Society of Fire Protection Engineers was founded in Boston on 31 October  1950.
Engineering Fire Suppression System

Engineered Fire Suppression Systems

Engineered Fire Suppression Systems are designed specifically. Engineered systems are usually for larger installations where the system is designed for the particular application. Examples include marine and land vehicle applications, computer clean rooms, public and private buildings, industrial paint lines, dip tanks and electrical switch rooms.
Auto System In a Computer Room

Automatic systems in a computer room

Today, there are numerous types of Automatic Fire Suppression Systems. Systems are as diverse as many applications. In general, however, Automatic Fire Suppression Systems fall into two categories. These are engineered and pre-engineered systems.
Pre-Engineered Fire Suppression Systems

Pre-Engineered Fire Suppression Systems

Pre-Engineered Fire Suppression Systems do not require the involvement of a design engineer beyond the original product design. Pre-engineered systems are comprised of pre-designed components. Examples of pre-engineered systems include commercial kitchen systems, industrial paint rooms, paint booths and industrial storage areas.
Pre-Engineered Fire Suppression Systems

Pre-Engineered Fire Suppression Systems

Pre-engineered systems most commonly use a simple wet or dry chemical agents, such as potassium carbonate or monoammonium phosphate (MAP). Engineered systems use a number of gaseous or solid agents. Many are specifically formulated. Some, such as 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire Protection Fluid, are stored as a liquid and discharged as a gas.

Fire Services

Today there are numerous types of Automatic Fire Suppression Systems.

Evacuation Systems

Emergency Voice Alarm Communications (EVAC) systems

  • An Emergency Voice Alarm Communication system is part of a fire alarm system that uses high reliability speakers to notify the occupants of the need for action case of fire or other emergency.
  • These speakers are special types of fire alarm Notification Appliances.
  • Emergency Voice Alarm Communication systems are employed in large facilities where general undirected evacuation is considered impracticable or undesirable.
  • The Audible Textual signals from the speakers are used to direct the occupant’s response during a fire or other emergency.
  • The system may be controlled from one or more locations within the building known as Fire Wardens Stations, or from a single location designated as the building Fire Command Centre.
  • Speakers are automatically activated by the fire services alarm system in a fire event and following a pre-alert tone, selected groups of speakers may transmit one or more pre-recorded messages directing the occupants to safety.
  • These messages may be repeated in one or more languages.
  • Trained personnel activating and speaking into a dedicated microphone can suppress the replay of automated messages in order to initiate or relay real time voice instructions.

Sprinkler Systems

By a wide margin, wet pipe sprinkler systems are installed more often than all other types of fire sprinkler systems. They also are the most reliable, because they are simple, with the only operating components being the automatic sprinklers and (commonly, but not always) the automatic alarm check valve. An automatic water supply provides water under pressure to the system piping. All of the piping is filled with water. Until sufficient heat is applied, causing one or more sprinklers to fuse (open), the automatic sprinklers prevent the water from being discharged.
Operation – When an automatic sprinkler is exposed to sufficient heat, the heat sensitive element (fusible link) releases, allowing water to flow from that sprinkler. Sprinklers are manufactured to react to a range of temperatures. Only sprinklers subjected to a temperature at or above their specific temperature rating will operate.
Pre-action sprinkler systems are specialised for use in locations where accidental activation is undesired, such as in museums with rare art works, manuscripts, or books.

Pre-action systems are hybrids of wet, dry and deluge systems, depending on the exact system goal.

The operation of double interlock systems are similar to deluge systems except that automatic sprinklers are used. These systems require that both a preceding and supervised event (typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector) and an automatic sprinkler activation take place prior the the action of water introduction into the system piping. There is also a little used variation known as Non-Interlock.
Once the fire is detected by the fire alarm system, the system is essentially converted from a dry system into a wet system. Or, if an automatic sprinkler operated prior to the fire being detected by the fire alarm system, water will be allowed into the piping and will discharge water from the sprinkler.
There are two sub-types of pre-action systems: single interlock, and double interlock. The operation of single interlock systems are similar to dry systems except that these systems require that a and supervised event (typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector) takes place prior to the action of water introduction into the system piping due to opening of the pre-action valve (which is a mechanically latched valve).

Pre-action sprinkler systems are specialised for use in locations where accidental activation is undesired, such as in museums with rare art works, manuscripts, or books.

Pre-action systems are hybrids of wet, dry and deluge systems, depending on the exact system goal. There are two sub-types of pre-action systems: single interlock, and double interlock. The operation of single interlock systems are similar to dry systems except that these systems require that a and supervised event (typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector) takes place prior to the action of water introduction into the system piping due to opening of the pre-action valve (which is a mechanically latched valve). Once the fire is detected by the fire alarm system, the system is essentially converted from a dry system into a wet system. Or, if an automatic sprinkler operated prior to the fire being detected by the fire alarm system, water will be allowed into the piping and will discharge water from the sprinkler.

The operation of double interlock systems are similar to deluge systems except that automatic sprinklers are used. These systems require that both a preceding and supervised event (typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector) and an automatic sprinkler activation take place prior the the action of water introduction into the system piping. There is also a little used variation known as Non-Interlock.

Dry pipe systems can only be used (by regulation) in spaces in which the ambient temperature may be cold enough to freeze the water in a wet pipe system, rendering the system inoperable. Dry pipe systems are most often used in unheated buildings, in outside canopies attached to heated buildings (in which a wet pipe system would be provided), or in refrigerated coolers. Dry pipe systems are the second most common sprinkler system type.

Water is not present in the piping until the system operates. The piping is pressurized with air, at a “maintenance” pressure which is relatively low compared with the water supply pressure. To prevent the larger water supply pressure from forcing water into the piping, the design of the dry pipe valve (a specialized type of check valve) intentionally includes a larger valve clapper area exposed to the maintenance air pressure, as compared to the water pressure.

Operation – When one or more of the automatic sprinklers is exposed to sufficient heat, it operates, allowing the maintenance air to vent from that sprinkler. Each sprinkler operates individually as the air pressure in the piping drops, the pressure differential across the dry pipe valve changes, allowing water to enter the piping system. Water flow from sprinklers needed to control the fire is delayed until the air is vented from the sprinklers. For this reason, dry pipe systems will only provide a slight delay prior to water discharge while the air in the piping is released prior to the water filling the pipe.

“Deluge” systems are systems that have open sprinklers, i.e. the heat sensing operating element is removed during installation, so that all sprinklers connected to the water piping system are open. These systems are used for special hazards where rapid fire spread is a concern, as they provide a simultaneous application of water over the entire hazard.

Water is not present in the piping until the system operates. Because the sprinkler offices are open, the piping is at ambient air pressure. To prevent the water supply pressure from forcing water into the piping, a deluge valve is used in the water supply connection, which is a mechanically latched valve. It is a non-resetting valve, and stays open once tripped.

A foam water sprinkler system is a special application system, discharging a mixture of water and low expansion foam concentrate, resulting in a foam spray from the sprinkler. These systems are usually used with special hazards occupancies associated with high challenge fires, such as flammable liquids and airport hangars. Operation is as described above, depending on the system type into which the foam is injected.

fire services
fire services